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Ministry of Fear – Book Review

Ministry of Fear was written by Graham Greene and published in 1943. It was one of only two novels he published during World War Two, when he was working for MI6.

Ministry of Fear: Logline

In World War Two London, a widower stumbles into a spy conspiracy, and is framed for murder. After he gets amnesia in an explosion, he has to try to regain his memory and discover what the conspirators’ plan is.

Ministry of Fear: Plot Summary

Warning: My reviews include spoilers. Major spoilers are blacked out like this [blackout]secret[/blackout]. To view them, just select/highlight them.

The Unhappy Man

It’s 1941, during the period of heavy German air-raids on London known as the Blitz. Arthur Rowe is guilty and depressed about the death of his wife, who he killed as she had a terminal illness.

Rowe, goes to a charity fête. For a joke he goes to the fortune-teller, who tells him the correct answer to the ‘guess the weight of the cake’ competition. Rowe uses the information to win the cake, but as he leaves, the fête committee try to stop him, saying there’s been a mistake. Rowe refuses to give the cake back.

The next day, a man rents a room in Rowe’s house. As an air-raid starts, the man offers Rowe money for the cake, but Rowe refuses. Then he puts poison into Rowe’s tea, but Rowe recognises the smell and doesn’t drink it.  A German bomb explodes and when Rowe regains consciousness he finds the house demolished and the man unconscious.

Concerned that someone tried to kill him, Rowe hires a private detective to investigate. He goes to the charity who ran the fête where he won the cake. There he meets Anna Hilfe, and her brother Willi, who are Austrian refugees.

Rowe and Willi go to the fortune-teller’s home to investigate her connection to the mystery. While there, they take part in a séance, during which a man is murdered with Rowe’s pocket knife. Knowing the conspirators have framed him, Rowe escapes before the police arrive.

Now on the run from the police, Rowe spends the night in an air raid shelter, fails to borrow money from a friend, and contemplates suicide. He also learns that the private detective he hired has disappeared too.

That afternoon he meets a man who asks him to take a case full of books to a hotel. At the hotel he’s escorted to a room where Anna is waiting. It’s a trap and a bomb in the case explodes.

The Happy Man

When Rowe wakes up, he’s in a sanitarium in the country, but has amnesia. The nurses tell him his name is Richard Digby.

Relieved of his guilty memories about his wife, Rowe is much happier. Anna visits and calls him ‘Arthur’ which confuses him. Rowe thinks he must have been in love with Anna before he lost his memory and starts to fall in love with her again.

When Rowe announces he is leaving the sanatorium, the doctor threatens him with being confined to the ‘sick bay’.  Rowe sneaks into the ‘sick bay’ and finds one of the patients locked up and in a straitjacket. Angry at Rowe’s escapades, the doctor gives him a newspaper cutting saying the police want him for murder. This triggers the return of some of Rowe’s memories.

Bits and Pieces

Rowe escapes from the sanatorium, with one of the nurses turning a blind eye, and gets a train to London, where he goes to the police to confess to the murder, though he doesn’t remember it very well…

The police [blackout]tell him that the man who Rowe thought murdered isn’t dead, it was a trick to prevent him going to the police.[/blackout]

The police also tell Rowe that [blackout]the cake had a microfilm of secret plans hidden in it. They take him to a tailor’s shop where he identifies the supposedly dead man, who is part of the spy-ring. Before they can question him, the man makes a phone call and then kills himself.[/blackout]

Rowe goes with the police [blackout]to arrest the fortune-teller and then to the sanatorium that Rowe escaped from, where almost everyone is dead. They also find the effects of the private detective, who the spy-ring must have murdered.[/blackout]

The Whole Man

Rowe works out [blackout]the telephone number that the tailor called before killing himself and phones it. Anna answers. Going to her flat he discovers that it’s her brother, Willi, who’s the head of the spy ring.[/blackout]

Willi [blackout]escapes. Rowe catches up with him at Paddington station just as another air-raid starts. Willi gives Rowe the microfilm, reminds Rowe that he killed his wife, and then commits suicide.[/blackout]

Rowe [blackout]returns to Anna. He pretends Willi told him nothing and his memory of his wife has not returned.[/blackout]

Ministry of Fear: Analysis

I felt Ministry of Fear fell a little between two stools. It seemed unsure whether it wanted to be a literary novel about the nature of identity and how guilt and the past make happiness in the present impossible, or a fun spy romp. As such, it was very uneven.

Ministry of Fear starts in The Thirty-Nine Steps territory, with the amateur hero blundering into an enemy spy plot and being forced on the run, pursued by the conspirators and the police, and so far so good, with his character deepening as we discover how having assisted his wife’s euthanasia has left him guilty and depressed.

Then the surreal plot device of the bookseller, the suitcase and the bomb intervenes.

Rowe loses his memory and a different novel takes over, where he is in a hospital that he starts to suspect is not exactly taking good care of him, or its other patients. The characterisation is very well-defined as we see how the loss of memory takes the weight off his mind and allows his happy nature to reappear.

The third sequence as Rowe’s memory starts to return is more of a spy romp as Rowe and the police round up the spies and Rowe turns detective to track down the mastermind. Finally, the spy plot is wrapped up, in a rather farcical manner.

Then comes the bitter and downbeat ending to the psychological plot, [blackout]as Rowe and Anna decide to deceive each other, caring for each other too much to admit their secrets.[/blackout]


Fundamentally Ministry of Fear has a ‘conspiracy’ plot (See Spy Novel Plots).

The ‘Conspiracy’ Plot

The Protagonist:

  1. Witnesses an Inciting Incident with a group of Antagonists.
  2. Realises they are not safe from the Antagonists.
  3. Is also not safe from the authorities, as they are tricked or infiltrated by the Antagonists.
  4. Goes on the run, pursued by both the Antagonists and the authorities.
  5. Involves one or more Allies in their escape (Optionally, there is a romance subplot with one of the Allies).
  6. Narrowly avoids capture and death (or is captured and escapes) by both the Antagonists and the authorities.
  7. Discovers who the Antagonists are.
  8. Persuades the authorities they should work together to stop the Antagonists.
  9. Confronts the Antagonists and stops (or fails to stop) them.

The main problem is that the spy plot in The Ministry of Fear makes almost no sense at all, relying on coincidences, handwaving and implausibilities and being resolved in a slightly ridiculous way. The psychological plot is more interesting and is the core of a good novel, but the two plots just don’t quite pull together into a coherent whole. The trouble is, the dark tone of the psychological plot does not sit well with the much lighter spy plot.

What is the ‘Ministry of Fear’?

It’s not a real ministry. The characters describe it as a web of blackmail and threats used by the enemy to force compliance with their wishes. Later, the narrator draws parallels with the psychological fear people have of losing the things they have and how that fear constrains them.

Ministry of Fear: My Verdict

Structurally, and in tone, it’s a mess, but the atmosphere, characters and writing quality make it worth reading.

Ministry of Fear: The Movie

Ministry of Fear by Graham Greene: Book Review

Ministry of Fear was filmed in 1944, starring Ray Milland, and directed by Fritz Lang.

The movie version of Ministry of Fear is only loosely based on the novel. It’s sometimes described as a film noir, but it is no such thing, dropping the noirish angles that are present in the novel. For example, Rowe (whose name is changed to Stephen Neale for some reason) didn’t kill his wife, she committed suicide, and the sanatorium and amnesia plot is removed completely.

So, the movie is a spy romp, even adding a couple of chases and shoot-outs. Ray Milland gives a mediocre, unbelievable performance, far too light and jolly. The stand-out performance is Hillary Brooke as the fortune-teller, who gives it a bit of the femme-fatale (rather pointlessly as she’s only in two scenes). And the movie has a cringe-worthy comic ending too.

Want to Read or Watch it?

Here’s the trailer:

The Ministry of Fear novel is available on Amazon US here and Amazon UK here.

The Ministry of Fear movie is available on Amazon US here and Amazon UK here.

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